Archive for the ‘nitrous oxide’ Category

Nitrous Oxide for Outpatient Urologic Conditions

October 28, 2015

Today many procedures are being done in the office setting rather than in the hospital. By using nitrous oxide there is less pain and discomfort. This blog will discuss the use of nitrous oxide as a safe sedation for office procedures.

Nitrous oxide is commonly used in anesthesia; its use improves the quality and safety of induction of anesthesia, facilitates faster recovery and reduces costs compared to procedures performed in the office or the ambulatory treatment center.

Nitrous oxide or laughing gas as it is commonly known was first synthesized by Joseph Priestley in 1772. It was initially used as a dental analgesic forty years after this and has been used extensively in a wide range of surgical procedures for both sedation and analgesia.

The exact mechanism of action of nitrous oxide is unknown, but its effects take place within the pain centers of the brain and spinal cord. It is thought to have an effect on the Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) cells increasing inhibition of nerve cells causing drowsiness and sleep.  It also is related to the release of endogenous neurotransmitters such as opioid peptides and serotonin. The release of these neurotransmitters is thought to activate descending pain pathways that inhibit pain transmission.

Nitrous oxide has a role in some of the following procedures:

In dentistry, nitrous oxide is frequently used to decrease the pain and anxiety associated with procedures. It is commonly delivered by a nasal mask in combination with oxygen.

Other indications

Although not standard practice, additional described uses may include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, laser procedures, obstetrical labor pain, ophthalmic procedures, emergency medical care of patients in accidents and during ambulance transport, and minor invasive medical procedures, including joint injections.

Contraindications

There are certain situations where the use of nitrous oxide is contra-indicated.  For example, in patients who have undergone recent eye surgery, involving gas bubble insertion (vitrectomy), as there is a risk that the nitrous oxide will diffuse into the bubble, causing the bubble to expand and cause injury to the eye.

Nitrous oxide can cause a rise in intra-cranial pressure, so it should not be used in cases of head injury and it must never be used if the patient has any conditions where air is trapped in the body and expansion would be dangerous, for example:

  • pneumothorax
  • abdominal distension
  • suspected intestinal obstruction
  • bullous emphysema
  • middle ear procedures
  • following a recent dive
  • maxillo-facial injuries,
  • impaired consciousness,
  • intoxication

Complications

When used properly, nitrous oxide is a very safe inhalational anesthetic gas. Complications up to and including death have been described. They are relatively uncommon with standard medical and dental use.

Adverse effects that may be associated with nitrous oxide include post procedure nausea and vomiting (PONV)

Short-term impairment in mental performance, manual dexterity, and audiovisual senses has been described with nitrous oxide use. This is not common and most patients can walk out of the office without assistance and even drive themselves home especially if they have not received any other sedatives like Valium or Ativan.

Bottom Line: Nitrous oxide is a very safe to provide sedation during office urologic procedures. It reduces the pain and anxiety of the procedure. For more information speak to your urologist.

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Nitrous Oxide Use In the Medical Office Is No Laughing Matter

September 27, 2015

There is a trend today to do more medical procedures outside of the hospital setting in ambulatory treatment centers or even in the physicians’ offices.  In urology, men are receiving prostate biopsies, cystoscopies and minimally invasive treatments for the enlarged prostate glands in the doctors’ offices.  This can be accomplished because the pain and discomfort can be made tolerable.

In our office we offer the inhalation of nitrous oxide to supplement the local anesthetic effect of topical Xylocaine similar to the use of Novocain by the dentist.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a clear, colorless, oxidizing liquefied gas with a slightly sweet odor. It has been used for decades by the dental profession and is now gaining acceptance for use by doctors in their office practices.

Nitrous oxide is blended with oxygen when used in sedation applications.

Nitrous oxide’s painkilling and numbing qualities begin to take effect when the gas is inhaled at very low concentrations. At increasingly higher concentrations, a sense of well being, or “high,” is experienced. A person experiencing a nitrous oxide high could:

Have slurred speech

Have difficulty in maintaining his or her balance or walking

Be slow to respond to questions

Be immune to any stimulus such as pain, loud noises, and speech

The gas is mixed with oxygen which is at a greater concentration than what occurs naturally in the air we normally breathe.  The gas is delivered through a mask placed over the mouth and nose.  At first the patient only receives pure oxygen in order to become accustomed to breathing with the mask over the nose and mouth.  Then slowly nitrous oxide is added to the oxygen until the desired analgesic effect is achieved.

There is a trend today to do more medical procedures outside of the hospital setting in ambulatory treatment centers or even in the physicians’ offices.  In urology, men are receiving prostate biopsies, cystoscopies and minimally invasive treatments for the enlarged prostate glands in the doctors’ offices.  This can be accomplished because the pain and discomfort can be made tolerable.

In our office we offer the inhalation of nitrous oxide to supplement the local anesthetic effect of topical Xylocaine similar to the use of Novocain by the dentist.

Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a clear, colorless, oxidizing liquefied gas with a slightly sweet odor. It has been used for decades by the dental profession and is now gaining acceptance for use by doctors in their office practices.

Nitrous oxide is blended with oxygen when used in sedation applications.

Nitrous oxide’s painkilling and numbing qualities begin to take effect when the gas is inhaled at very low concentrations. At increasingly higher concentrations, a sense of well being, or “high,” is experienced. A person experiencing a nitrous oxide high could result in:

Have slurred speech

Have difficulty in maintaining his or her balance or walking

Be slow to respond to questions

Be immune to any stimulus such as pain, loud noises, and speech

The gas is mixed with oxygen, which is at a greater concentration than what occurs naturally in the air we normally breathe.  The gas is delivered through a mask placed over the mouth and nose.  At first the patient only receives pure oxygen in order to become accustomed to breathing with the mask over the nose and mouth.  Then slowly nitrous oxide is added to the oxygen until the desired anesthetic effect is achieved.

At the end of the urologic procedure the nitrous oxide is turned off and the patient breathes pure oxygen for several minutes and then the mask is removed.  Most patients are comfortable afterwards and can walk out of the office without assistance and can even drive themselves home.

There are very few contraindications to using nitrous oxide.  These include patients with significant respiratory conditions such as severe COPD or emphysema.

There are very few side effects associated with the use of nitrous oxide.  The most common side effect is temporary nausea and rare vomiting.

Bottom Line:  Doctors make every effort to reduce or control pain associated with the medical procedures they perform.  The use of nitrous oxide in the outpatient or office setting helps patients eliminate pain associated with urologic procedures.  It is safe and there are few side effects.  For more information speak to your physician or give me a call at 504 891-8454.