Archive for the ‘prostate cancer prevention’ Category

Prostate Cancer

October 21, 2016

What do Jose Torres, John Kerry, and Jerry Lewis have in common?  They all have prostate cancer and have been successfully treated.  Nearly 250,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer this year and nearly 30,000 men will die of prostate cancer.  This article will discuss the symptoms of prostate cancer and what can be done to diagnose the

The most common prostate problems are an enlarged prostate, prostatitis and prostate cancer.

Prostate cancer frequently has no symptoms and most men will have prostate cancer and not be aware of the diagnosis.  Symptoms that occur as a result of any prostate condition including benign enlargement of the prostate gland and prostate cancer include:

  • Frequent urination
  • Getting up at night to urinate
  • Pain with urination
  • Difficulty starting to urinate
  • Blood in the urine
  • Bone pain
  • Impotence or Erectile dysfunction (ED)

 

Risk factors associated with prostate cancer include:

The condition is rare in men under 40 years of age, but most cases are found in men aged 50 or older. At age 80+ nearly all men will have prostate cancer but will seldom succumb to the disease or they have prostate cancer but will not die from it. 

Genetic factor may contribute to prostate cancer risk. Men who have a father, brother, uncle or cousin with prostate cancer are 2 to 3 times more likely to get the condition as compared to men without prostate cancer in a close relative. 

African-American men also have an increased risk of having prostate cancer. It is suggested that African-American men start seeing a doctor for a digital rectal exam and a PSA test after age 40.

Studies have found that obese men have a greater risk of developing more advanced prostate cancer as well as a higher risk of metastasis and death from the condition.

Many studies have found a link between smoking and getting prostate cancer as well as an increased the risk of dying from the condition.

High fat diet has been shown to put men at high risk of prostate cancer. Some studies show that men who have diets high in red meat may raise a person’s chances of developing prostate cancer. 

Bottom Line:  Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of death in men due to cancer (lung cancer is number one), and is very treatable if the diagnosis is made early.  This can be accomplished with a rectal examination and a PSA test.  Speak to your doctor for more information.

 

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PSA Testing for Prostate Cancer-To Screen or Not to Screen That is the Question

September 28, 2016

Today, nothing is more confusing for men than the concept of screening for prostate cancer.  Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, following lung cancer, and there are 250,000 men each year diagnosed with prostate cancer and causes nearly 30,000 deaths a year.  About one in seven men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer during his lifetime.

But some prostate cancers develop slowly, and, as the disease is more common in elderly men, most men with prostate cancer die with it and not from it. Thus, screening, diagnosis and treatment of the disease are controversial.

There is no consensus about prostate cancer screening as early diagnosis can be associated with very bothersome side effects such as erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence.  Also screening has not been universally shown to increase survival or decrease the death rate from prostate cancer.  This article will discuss the pros and cons of PSA screening for men.

Men who opt for screening undergo a digital rectal exam and a blood draw to measure a chemical called PSA or prostate specific antigen. This level of PSA can be increased in men with prostate cancer. Other conditions may cause the increase in the PSA such as benign enlargement of the prostate gland and prostate infections.

The best way to detect an early potentially deadly case is to collect yearly PSA tests over three to five years so trends can be assessed.

I like most other urologists are concerned about over treatment of prostate cancer — in other words, being too aggressive in using surgery or radiation when a small amount of potentially slow-growing cancer is found on a biopsy.

The federal government has also become concerned about this issue. A large medical research trial called the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Study released results from 2009 showing no benefit from screening for prostate cancer when comparing a large group of unscreened men to a large group of aggressively screened men.

Researchers across the country are assessing the effects of the USPSTF recommendations on prostate cancer mortality since 2012. In a recent study from Northwestern University in Chicago, researchers found a significant increase in the cases of advanced prostate cancer already spread to other parts of the body from 2004 to 2013. As a result we could be missing serious cancers because of decreased screening.

Prostate cancer also has a hereditary predilection and men with a father, brother, cousin, or uncle should consider having screening around age 40.  This also applies to African-American men who have a greater risk of prostate cancer than Caucasian men and should also have testing after age 40.

My best advice is to ask your doctor\urologist about the decision to undergo prostate cancer screening.

Tomatoes and Not Potatoes May Help Prevent Prostate Cancer

July 8, 2016

For many years I have been focused on nutrition and various urologic diseases, especially prostate cancer.  Although the relationship between prostate cancer and diet is certainly a consideration, the use of tomatoes may be one of the strongest preventive options a man can take to avoid prostate cancer.

There are many health advantages of eating more tomatoes, which includes a lower risk of prostate cancer and other cancers as well. While the good news is Americans eat more tomatoes and tomato products than any other non-starchy vegetable, about 90% of adult men fail to consume the 2.5 cups of vegetables per day recommended by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

Tomatoes contain a high antioxidant content, specifically lycopene. Lycopene has been the subject of many research studies regarding its protective effect against prostate cancer.

In men with prostate cancer, lycopene supplementation has been shown to be safe and tolerated well in doses up to 120 mg per day for up to one year. Toxicity is generally very mild, with diarrhea as a possible side effect at very high doses.

There appears to be a protective effect of tomatoes and tomato products on the prevention of prostate cancer as well as improvements in biomarkers of disease status, including the PSA levels.

A unique characteristic of tomatoes is that unlike the nutrients in other fresh fruits and vegetables, lycopene is more bioavailable after tomatoes are cooked and processed. This fact opens up even more possibilities for individuals to enjoy the benefits of lycopene.

According to the US Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, ½ cup of tomato paste contains 18.84 mg of lycopene, while an equal amount of tomato sauce has 17.12 mg, spaghetti sauce has 15.82 mg, and tomato juice has 10.88 mg of lycopene.  One-half cup of raw tomatoes, however, contains only 2.32 mg of lycopene. Non-tomato products that contain lycopene include watermelon (1/2 cup has 3.44 mg) and grapefruit (1/2 fruit contains 1.75 mg).

More recent hypotheses have looked at the advantages of whole tomatoes, which are excellent sources of vitamins A and C, fiber, and potassium, and identified other protective elements beyond lycopene. Vitamins A and C are potent antioxidants, while fiber has been shown to reduce cholesterol, and potassium is helpful in lowering blood pressure and possibly reducing bone loss.

Experts in nutrition and cancer note that the preponderance of evidence suggests that consumption of whole tomatoes and tomato products should be preferentially recommended because of greater consistency of documented positive outcomes with the whole tomato and the concomitant supply of other important essential nutrients.

Given that tomatoes and tomato products are already dietary favorites, increasing their consumption can achieve several goals, including reduction in the risk of prostate cancer and other diseases, and helping Americans achieve the recommended daily intake of 2.5 cups of vegetables.

Bottom Line: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer (besides skin cancer) in men and the second most cause of death in men following lung cancer.  Men can be easily diagnosed with a PSA test and a digital rectal exam.  Man can also decrease their risk of prostate cancer by consuming lycopene, an antioxidant, which is plentiful in tomatoes.

PSA Testing-What Every Man Needs to Know

January 18, 2016

Prostate specific antigen is a simple blood test that can be a metric for prostate health.  It is a good screening test for prostate cancer.  This blog will discuss the PSA test and what you need to know to make a decision to obtain this common test.

Let’s start by reassuring men that having an elevated PSA level does not necessarily mean you have prostate cancer.

PSA is also likely to be increased with benign enlargement of the prostate gland as well as prostate infections or prostatitis.

It is important to emphasize that the PSA test is not a specific prostate cancer test, but it is a vital first step in screening for the potential presence of cancer.

The other factors that can cause PSA levels to rise:

  • Age: PSA levels can increase gradually as you age
  • Prostatitis: Inflammation of the prostate gland, due to infection or some unknown cause
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): This condition refers to an enlarged prostate.  More prostate means more cells making prostate specific antigen, increasing the potential for an elevated PSA.
  • Urinary tract infection: can irritate and inflame prostate cells and cause PSA to go up
  • Medications: Some medications like Proscar, Avodart, or Propecia can falsely lower your PSA.  This too is important to remember.  If you are on any of these medications, talk to your doctor.  The general rule of thumb is to double your PSA for an accurate score.
  • Sex/ejaculation:  This can cause a mild elevation in the PSA, but should return to normal after a few days. That is why I usually recommend that men refrain from sexual intimacy for 48 hours prior to PSA testing
  • Prostate trauma: Anything that causes direct trauma to the prostate such as riding a bike, having a catheter inserted into the blader, a prostate biopsy, or a cystoscopy which is a look using a lighted tube through the urethra (tube in the penis that transports semen and urine) can increase the PSA temporarily.

A PSA level of less than 4.0 ng/mL is normal, while changes of more than 2.0 ng/mL over the course of a year could be an indicator of the presence of prostate cancer.

I point out that there is a familial or inherited basis of prostate cancer and also an increased risk of prostate cancer in African-American men.  In these men who are are at a greater risk of prostate cancer, I suggest annual testing with a digital rectal examination and a PSA test after age 40.  For all others, I suggest testing begin at age 50.

For men who have an elevated PSA test, then a discussion with the doctor about repeating the test in a few weeks or proceeding to an ultrasound examination and a prostate biopsy is in order.

Bottom Line: PSA testing is a non-specific test used to screen for prostate cancer.  Not all elevations of the PSA test indicate cancer.  Further testing and close monitoring as well as a prostate biopsy is in order.  For more information, speak to your doctor.

PSA Testing For Prostate Cancer-New Recommendations For 2015

February 16, 2015

In 2012 the United States Task Force released guidelines for PSA testing for prostate cancer that stated that no man should be tested for prostate cancer with a PSA test since there was far too many man who were over-diagnosed and who had treatment and complications from the treatment and that the cancer was so slow growing that few men would die of their prostate cancers.

Two physicians’ groups are now recommending informed decision-making when it comes to screening for prostate cancer. This is in line with American Cancer Society guidelines for early detection of prostate cancer.

The American Urological Association (AUA), the leading organization representing urologists, is recommending more moderate use of prostate cancer screening tests.

In its new guidelines, the AUA recommends that men ages 55 to 69 discuss the benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening with their doctors before deciding whether to be screened. It recommends against screening for men younger than 55 who are at average risk, as well as for men 70 and older.

The American College of Physicians (ACP) released a similar guidance statement in April 2013. The ACP says men between the ages of 50 and 69 should discuss the limited benefits and substantial harms of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test with their doctor before undergoing screening for prostate cancer. The guideline says only men between the ages of 50 and 69 who express a clear preference for screening should have the PSA test.

These new recommendations are closer to those of the American Cancer Society and several other groups issued in recent years. The American Cancer Society recommends that men discuss the possible risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening with their doctor before deciding whether to be screened. The discussion about screening should take place starting at age 50 for men who are at average risk of prostate cancer and expect to live at least 10 more years. It should take place at age 40-45 for men who are at higher risk, this includes African-American men and men who have a father or brother diagnosed with prostate cancer.

The discussion with the doctor should include an explanation to men of the uncertainty of the PSA test, potential harms from the prostate biopsy and treatments such as surgery and radiation, and potential benefits of PSA screening. Use of this test should be a decision made by the individual patient in collaboration with his healthcare provider.

Some limitations of screening

Screening looks for disease in people who have no symptoms. The main goal of prostate cancer screening is to reduce deaths due to prostate cancer. But the studies showed that the number of men who avoided dying of prostate cancer because of screening after 10 to 14 years was very small.

And screening isn’t perfect. Sometimes screening misses cancer, and sometimes it finds something suspicious that turns out to be harmless. The PSA test often produces false-positive results. For example men with an enlarged prostate gland or men with an infection of the prostate gland can have an elevated PSA level. Also, there aren’t reliable tests yet to tell the difference between prostate cancer that’s going to grow so slowly it will never cause a man any problems, and dangerous or aggressive prostate cancer that will grow quickly. Treatments for prostate cancer can have urinary, bowel, and sexual side effects that may seriously affect a man’s quality of life.

Bottom Line: The PSA is not a perfect test. It is inexpensive and it is non-invasive. It is useful as a baseline test and can help a man decide if he should proceed to a biopsy or to have treatment for his cancer. A thorough discussion between the man and his doctor is the best recommendation that I can provide for all men who are concerned about prostate cancer.

PSA Screening-What You Need To Know Before Being Tested

September 8, 2014

Prostate cancer is the 2nd most common cancer in men in the US, affecting about 1 in 6 men in his lifetime. It is the 2nd leading cause of cancer death in men, and almost 2 out of every 3 prostate cancers are found in men age 65 or older.

Screening can help find prostate cancer early.
Most insurance providers cover annual PSA tests for men ages 50 and older. A PSA test is a simple blood test that may help find prostate cancer early before it has spread. Talk to your doctor about when you should begin screening. Some organizations recommended men who are at higher risk of prostate cancer, including African American men and men whose father or brother had prostate cancer, begin screening at age 40 or 45.

The US Food And Drug Administration (FDA) first approved prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer in the early 1990s. In the decade prior to this approval, 5-year survival rates from the cancer stood at around 70-75%. By 1998, it had increased to 98.2%.

Although some health care experts have hailed PSA testing as the best available method to screen men for prostate cancer, there has been long-standing debate surrounding its use in routine testing.

PSA testing can lead to many false-positive results, meaning men can be alerted to cancers that are not actually present. Furthermore, critics argue that the test can lead to over-diagnosis, causing many men to undergo treatment they do not need.

September is National Prostate Cancer Awareness Month. So what is the evidence for and against PSA testing for prostate cancer?

PSA is a substance made by cells in the prostate gland. During a PSA test, a clinician will take blood from the patient and send the sample off to a laboratory, where levels of PSA are measured by nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL).

High levels of PSA – usually 4.0 ng/mL or higher – can indicate the presence of prostate cancer, and a man with such levels is likely to need a biopsy to determine whether he has the cancer.

However, high PSA levels can also be a sign of less harmful conditions, such as prostatitis or infection of the prostate gland – or enlarged prostate or benign enlargement of the prostate gland, a condition that can cause urination and bladder problems. Furthermore, the PSA test is unable to determine the difference between aggressive and benign prostate cancers. This is where concerns about the test’s accuracy come into play.

Past research has estimated that between 17-50% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer through PSA testing have tumors that would not have resulted in symptoms throughout their lifetime.

This means many men may receive treatment for prostate cancer – such as surgery, radiation or hormone therapy – that they do not need, which can lead to serious side effects, including urinary incontinence and erectile dysfunction.

Reasons Not To Test or Screen For Prostate Cancer
Such factors have fueled recommendations against routine prostate cancer screening. In 2012, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) led the way by issuing a recommendation against PSA-based screening for prostate cancer for men of all ages who do not have symptoms.

Prostate cancer is a serious health problem that affects thousands of men and their families. But before getting a PSA test, all men deserve to know what the science tells us about PSA screening: there is a very small potential benefit and significant potential harms.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) does not provide guidelines that back routine PSA testing for prostate cancer. Instead, they state that “men have a chance to make an informed decision with their health care provider about whether to be screened for prostate cancer.”

ACS suggest that a patient’s discussion with their health care provider about prostate cancer screening should start at age 50 for men who are at average risk of the disease and who are expected to live 10 years or more, while the discussion should take place at age 40 for men at high risk of prostate cancer.

The American Urological Association and the American College of Physicians have similar recommendations.
But despite recommendations against routine prostate cancer screening for men with no symptoms, many health care professionals believe PSA testing is crucial for preventing deaths against the disease.
Since PSA screening became routine in the 1990s, prostate-cancer mortality rates have declined by nearly 40%. I think PSA testing is the most likely explanation.

Without routine PSA testing, an additional 17,000 men every year would be diagnosed with advanced prostate cancer. We know that not all these men would be cured if detected earlier but PSA testing dramatically improves the odds that prostate cancer will be found before it becomes incurable.

Many men with prostate cancer feel that having a PSA test meant their cancer was diagnosed at a stage when it could be treated, and they would like all men to be able to benefit like they feel they have. As a result there have been calls for a screening program for prostate cancer using the PSA test to be introduced.

The European Randomised Study of Screening Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), launched in 2003 to determine the effect of routine testing on prostate cancer death rates.

Routine screening can lead to over diagnosis in around 40% of cases, which can lead to overtreatment and common side effects.

The results of another study – the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial – found that between 1993 and 2001, PSA-based screening for prostate cancer appeared to have no mortality benefits compared with a digital rectal examination.

With such conflicting studies on PSA testing for prostate cancer, it is no wonder that health organizations appear to be sitting on the fence when it comes to recommendations for such screening.

Dr. Otis Brawley, chief medical officer at the American Cancer Society stated that the majority of individuals are unaware of what the current recommendations are when it comes to prostate cancer screening.

Virtually every organization recommends men be informed of the documented harms and potential benefits of screening and be allowed to make a decision about being screened. Some may reasonably choose screening and make the decision about treatment after diagnosis. Even the USPSTF statement – which starts out recommending against routine screening – is consistent.

By looking at all available evidence for and against PSA testing for prostate cancer screening, it seems impossible to reach a firm conclusion about whether the test should be routinely offered to men or not.
If the test could distinguish between aggressive and harmless prostate cancers, routine screening would not be an issue, as the risk of overtreatment would be reduced. But of course, more research is needed to reach this point.

The US Food And Drug Administration (FDA) first approved prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer in the early 1990s. In the decade prior to this approval, 5-year survival rates from the cancer stood at around 70-75%. By 1998, it had increased to 98.2%.

Although some health care experts have hailed PSA testing as the best available method to screen men for prostate cancer, there has been long-standing debate surrounding its use in routine testing.

PSA testing can lead to many false-positive results, meaning men can be alerted to cancers that are not actually present. Furthermore, critics argue that the test can lead to over diagnosis, causing many men to undergo treatment they do not need.

I suggest that each patient being screened understands what is known about PSA screening and makes the personal decision that even a small possibility of benefit outweighs the known risk of harms.

They say a patient’s discussion with their health care provider about prostate cancer screening should start at age 50 for men who are at average risk of the disease and who are expected to live 10 years or more, while the discussion should take place at age 40 for men at high risk, i.e., if you have a close relative with prostate cancer or if you are of African-American.

The American Urological Association and the American College of Physicians have similar recommendations.

Bottom line: PSA screening isn’t for every man. However, every man should have a discussion with his doctor and see if PSA testing is appropriate for him.

The Relationship Between Tomatoes and Prostate Cancer

September 5, 2014

There has been media attention to the role of lycopenes found in tomatoes as a possible prevention of prostate cancer.

A study from England showed that men who eat over 10 portions a week of tomatoes have an 18% lower risk of developing prostate cancer.

Researches examined the diets and lifestyle of 1,806 men between the ages of 50 and 69 years with prostate cancer and compared them with 12,005 cancer-free men.
The study is the first study of its kind to develop a prostate cancer dietary index consisting of dietary components—selenium, calcium, and foods rich in lycopene—that have been linked to prostate cancer.
The results showed that men who had optimal intake of these three dietary components had a lower risk of prostate cancer, researchers found.

Tomatoes and tomato products, such as tomato juice and baked beans, were shown to be most beneficial, with an 18% reduction in risk found in men eating over 10 portions a week. This is thought to be due to lycopene, an antioxidant that fights off toxins that can cause DNA and cell damage.

The findings suggest that tomatoes may be important in prostate cancer prevention.

Bottom line: Men should still eat a wide variety of fruits and vegetables, maintain a healthy weight, and stay active.

Preventing Prostate Cancer

September 4, 2014

Prostate Cancer is a disease of aging and at this time there is no vaccine or sure fire way to completely prevent prostate cancer. However, there are steps you can take to reduce your risks.

• Advanced age increases your risk. Despite this, prostate cancer is not an “old man’s disease:” 35 percent of those affected are younger than 65.
• Family history may play a role. A strong family history of prostate cancer can increase your chances of developing the disease. While these factors are beyond our control, having awareness of increased risk can motivate us to focus on the areas we can affect.
• If there are factors that put you at higher risk, it’s important to be vigilant in areas you can control, including regular screenings. Talk with your doctor about the pros and cons of prostate screening. For African-Americans or those with a family history of prostate cancer, ask if screening should begin earlier.
1. Eat healthy. Avoid foods high in sodium, saturated fat, cholesterol, refined sugar and trans fat, which contribute to cancer risk. Instead, choose foods high in Omega-3 fatty acids (salmon, almonds) and monounsaturated fats (olive oil, peanuts) as well as fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Eating right doesn’t just lower your risk for prostate cancer, but prevents weight gain and improves your overall health.

2. Be active. Participate in 75 minutes of vigorous activity, or 150 minutes of moderate activity, weekly. This can include walking, swimming, biking or any exercise your doctor recommends.

3. Get screened. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends baseline PSA screening for healthy men ages 50 to 70 every one to two years, and a majority of the panelists recommend baseline testing for men ages 45 to 49, too especially for men with a family history of prostate cancer or are of African American heritage.

Bottom line: Prostate cancer affects 250,000 men each year and causes 40,000 deaths making it the second most common cause of cancer death in men. Eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly and getting tested with a digital rectal exam and a PSA test on a regular basis is the best prevention strategy available today.

Tomatoes Can Punch Out Prostate Cancer

March 14, 2014

Tomatoes Can Punch Out Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer remains one of the most common cancers in men and causes the death of nearly 30,000 men each year. The cause of prostate cancer is unknown but we do know that having a family member with prostate cancer and African American men have a higher incidence of prostate cancer which leads me to believe that there is a genetic or hereditary basis for prostate cancer.

A recent study from the Journal of National Cancer Institute has pointed out that increased consumption of lycopenes, which are found in tomatoes, tomato-based products, pink grapefruit, and watermelons appear to decrease the risk of prostate cancer.

The study suggests that increasing the consumption of a diet rick in lycopene-containing foods reduces the aggressive potential of prostate cancer. The study showed that a high in take of tomato or tomato-based products was associated with a 10%-20% decrease in prostate cancer risk and those men who had high blood levels of lycopenes had a 25% decrease risk of prostate cancer.

For those men who do not like tomatoes, you can take a supplement of lycopene, 20-25mg per day.

Bottom Line: No one knows for certain why lycopenes decreases the risk of prostate cancer. But as my wise Jewish mother would say, “It may not help, but it voidn’t hoit.”

More zzzzzz’s May Protect Against the Big C-The Relationship Of Sleep and Prostate Cancer

January 22, 2014

You have all heard that it’s healthy to get 8 hours of sleep a day. Now you have another reason to make sure that you don’t cheat the sleep fairy. A good nights sleep well may help to protect men from deadly prostate cancer.
Scientists linked higher levels of the night-time hormone melatonin with a 75 per cent reduced risk of advanced disease.
Melatonin is produced in the dark at night. It plays a key role in regulating the body’s sleep-wake cycle and influences many other functions associated with the body’s 24-hour clock, or circadian rhythm.
Low levels of the hormone are typically associated with disrupted sleep. Men who reported taking medication for sleep problems, and difficulty falling and staying asleep, had significantly lower amounts of the melatonin marker.
Men whose melatonin marker levels were higher than the middle of the range were 75 per cent less likely to develop advanced prostate cancer than those with lower values.
Here are some suggestions for good sleep hygiene and getting a good nights sleep without resorting to medication:
Avoid napping during the day; it can disturb the normal pattern of sleep and wakefulness.
Avoid stimulants such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol too close to bedtime. While alcohol is well known to speed the onset of sleep, it disrupts sleep in the second half as the body begins to metabolize the alcohol, causing arousal.
Exercise can promote good sleep. Vigorous exercise should be taken in the morning or late afternoon. A relaxing exercise, like yoga, can be done before bed to help initiate a restful night’s sleep.
Food can be disruptive right before sleep; stay away from large meals close to bedtime. Also dietary changes can cause sleep problems, if someone is struggling with a sleep problem, it’s not a good time to start experimenting with spicy dishes. And, remember, chocolate has caffeine.
Ensure adequate exposure to natural light. This is particularly important for older people who may not venture outside as frequently as children and adults. Light exposure helps maintain a healthy sleep-wake cycle.
Establish a regular relaxing bedtime routine. Try to avoid emotionally upsetting conversations and activities before trying to go to sleep. Don’t dwell on, or bring your problems to bed.
Associate your bed with sleep. It’s not a good idea to use your bed to watch TV, listen to the radio, or read.
Make sure that the sleep environment is pleasant and relaxing. The bed should be comfortable, the room should not be too hot or cold, or too bright.

Bottom Line: We do know that advanced age, family history of prostate cancer, and African American men have a greater risk of prostate cancer. Add to this list, disrupted sleep, lack of sleep, or sleep deficit can also be added to risk factors associated with prostate cancer. Make sure you get a good nights sleep and you may reduce your risk of prostate cancer. As my wonderful Jewish mother might say, “It may not help, but it voidn’t hoit!”